Symptoms vary, depending on the defect.
In childhood, there may be few, if any, symptoms. Teens and adults may experience the following:
- Shortness of breath, and
- Heart murmur.
Coarctation of the aorta
Symptoms may include:
- Cold feet or legs,
- Leg cramps while exercising,
- Localized hypertension, and
- Low stamina.
Aortic valve defects
People with aortic stenosis, or narrowing, may not experience any symptoms until they develop congestive heart failure. Those with aortic regurgitation, a type of valve defect, may experience the following:
- Chest pain, and
- Night sweats.
Mitral valve defects
People with mitral valve defects may not display symptoms until their 30s, when they may experience:
- Ankle swelling,
- Shortness of breath while lying down or after exercise,
- Chest discomfort,
- Loss of consciousness, and
- Symptoms of heart failure.
Pulmonic valve defects
When pulmonic stenosis is severe, people may experience:
- Shortness of breath while exercising,
- Swelling in the arms, legs, and abdomen,
- Audible heart murmur, and
- Cyanosis (bluish skin color).
Tricuspid valve defects
The symptoms of tricuspid stenosis include:
- Upper right abdomen discomfort,
- Shortness of breath,
- Fluid retention,
- Vomiting, and
Those with tricuspid regurgitation may also have an enlarged liver.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Symptoms that may indicate Tetralogy of Fallot include:
- Breathing difficulties,
- Loss of consciousness after activity,
- Bulging nail beds, and
- Symptoms of congestive heart failure.